Agriculture is the cultivation of plants, animals and fungi, usually with the primary purpose of enhancing and sustaining human life. It produces food, medicinal products, biofuel, fiber and many other products. People need agriculture in order to fulfil their primary needs and to survive. It is very important to local, regional, national and international economies, or to any industry that relies on food and the binary options trading market. It has a direct impact on the price of commodities and an indirect impact on currency exchange rates and the price of stocks and indices. Traditionally, agriculture always took place on family owned farms, often in subsistence farming situations. Nowadays, however, many stages in the agricultural process have been heavily commercialised and dominated by large companies.
Generally speaking, growing seasons take place in the summer time in areas such as Northern and Central Europe, Canada, the United States and other places that are cooler and distant from the equator. In places that are warmer and closer to the equator, such as Spain, Portugal, Mexico, Columbia and many Southern parts of the United States, growing seasons are usually year round with the exception of interruptions by dust storms and thunderstorms during the rainy seasons.
Cash Crops and the Commodity Market
A cash crop is an agricultural crop which is planted and grown with the specific purpose of being sold and turning a profit, as opposed to being grown for personal use. Major cash crops such as coffee, corn, soybean, wheat, cotton and sugar are listed on most commodity markets across the globe.
Approximately 50% of the world’s land is irrigated. Irrigation is any human-made system that brings water to the land and is used when natural rainfall is either inconsistent or does not provide enough water for a crop. The three most common types of irrigation are flood irrigation, drip irrigation and spray irrigation. Flood irrigation, also known as surface irrigation, is any irrigation technique where water is distributed over the surface of the soil by gravity. Drip irrigation is a water-saving irrigation technique where the water drips slowly either below or above the soil surface, specifically aiming for the roots of the plants. Spray irrigation is when water is distributed through a sprinkler system.
The essence of agricultural sustainability is to balance social, economic and environmental impacts. In order to achieve this, productivity gains and cost efficiencies must not occur at the expense of the environment. Sustainability also includes using scarce water supplies conservatively and utilizing fertilizers that increase productivity.
Bio technology is using technology based on biology to develop and make products from living systems. The term “bio technology” was coined in 1919 by Hungarian Agricultural Engineer Karoly Ereky. This technology includes biofuels and genetically modified foods and crops. Many biofuels including biodiesel and ethanol are produced from agricultural products.